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J Am Soc Nephrol, 20 (5): 1002-11. J Mol Biol, 307 (3): 799-813. Some databases report SUCNR1 as being 334-aa long. PDB Id: 6RNK Ligand: NF-56-EJ40 Resolution: 1. Key to terms and symbols View all chemical structures Click column headers to sort Ligand Sp. Similarly, 7e demonstrates low plasma clearance (2. Succinate acts an an alarmin that triggers the initiation and propagation of danger signals resulting from tissue injury or inflammatory stimuli. It acts through the succinate receptor, SUCNR1.

The precise mechanism for internalization has not been elucidated. References: 11Tissue Distribution Kidney Species: 27 Present in platelets, T cells, B cells and monocytes. Species: 10 Megakaryocytes, platelets, monocytes Species: 15 Isolated adipocytes, white adipose tissues, kidney, liver, gall bladder, vena cava, skin, spleen, thyroid Species: 17 Cortical region of mouse kidney, including proximal tubules, distal tubules, juxtaglomerular apparatus Species: 11 Kidney, liver, spleen Species: 10-11 Kidney, liver Species: 27 Kidney and glomerular endothelial cells.

No transcripts of SUCNR1 were detected in vascular smooth muscle cell and juxtaglomerular cell. Species: 24 Apical membrane of retinal pigment epithelium Species: 8 Ventricular cardiomyocytes Species: 1 Cell bodies of retinal ganglion cell layer and cells of the inner nuclear layer and outer retina Species: 8 Quiescent hepatic stellate cells. The transcipts of SUCNR1 were not detected in hepatocytes, cholangiocytes, Kuppffer cells, sinusoidal endothelial cells and portal fibroblasts Species: 5 Apical membrane of macula densa cells Species: 26 Vascular endothelial cells in the afferent arteriole and glomerulus.

No expression of SUCR1 was detected in juxtaglomerular cell. Species: 11-12 Mediates extracellular succinate-induced inhibition of lipolysis in white adipose tissue. Species: 1 Mediates the immunomodulatory effect of succinate, such as enhancing the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by dendritic cells, inducing chemotaxis of dendritic cells, potentiating T cell activation and enhancing the homing of dendritic cells to draining lymph nodes.

Protect TF-1 cells from apoptosis induced by serum deprivation. Species: 11 Stimulate blood cell development in vivo under conditions of myelosuppression. Species: 11 Involved in the activation of MAPKs, COX-2 and the release of prostaglandin E2in macula densa cells, leading to renin release and renal angiotensin system activation. Species: 26 Involved in retinal angiogenesis by regulating various angiogenic factors including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietins.

Species: 21 Mediates the succinate-induced expression of VEGF in iron-overloaded retinal pigment epithelium cells. Physiological Consequences of Altering Gene Expression Hypertension can not be induced by succinate in mice with SUCNR1 knockout.

Species: 24 Impaired migration of dendritic cells, diminished succinate-mediated immune responses, decreased T cell proliferation, weaker allograft rejection.

SUCNR mice have impaired dendritic cell migration and diminished succinate-mediated immune responses such as chemotaxis of immature monocytes-driven dendritic cells and production of inflammotory cytokines. Species: 19 TF-1 cells with SUCNR1 knockdown do not proliferate in response to succinate. Species: 10 Less tuft formation, extra-retinal neovascularization and blood vessel tortuosity.

Rats with SUCNR1 knockdown are protected from retinal neovascularization in ischemic proliferative retinopathy. Succinate is as an intermediary of the citric acid cycle.